COLOMBIA: URABENOS LEADERSHIP UNDER MOUNTING PRESSURE – Carlos Mario Úsuga David, (aka: Cuarentano) has been arrested, is the chief financial operative for the group, also, is the brother of Antonio Úsuga, (aka: Otoniel), 1 of Colombia’s most wanted men
ABOVE CENTER – Carlos Mario Úsuga David (aka: Cuarentano)
Authorities in Colombia continue to home in on the Urabeños crime group, arresting the brother of boss Dairo Antonio Úsuga.
On August 22, Colombia’s President Iván Duque announced the capture of Carlos Mario Úsuga David, alias “Cuarentano,” who is said to be the chief financial operative for the group. He is also the brother of Antonio Úsuga, alias “Otoniel,” one of Colombia’s most wanted men.
Úsuga David was arrested by police in the city of Montería, the capital of northwest Córdoba department, after a months-long hunt that had mostly focused on the Bajo Cauca region of Antioquia, the group’s base of operations.
Otoniel had reportedly named his brother to lead the group’s finances after the arrest of their former financial operative, Nini Johana Úsuga, alias “La Negra,” in December 2013.
“Cuarentano collected the money from illegal mining, extortion and handled all the finances of drug trafficking to Central America and Europe,” said Colombia’s police director, Óscar Atehortúa Duque.
The evidence collected by authorities indicates that Úsuga David operated across the departments of Chocó, Antioquia, Córdoba, Bolívar, Sucre, Atlántico and Magdalena, from where he coordinated the flow of drugs out of Colombia to international markets.
InSight Crime Analysis
Úsuga David’s capture has dealt another critical blow to the Urabeños’ top leadership and is likely to weaken his brother’s ability to operate, especially at a time of increasing government efforts to dismantle his organization.
Antonio Úsuga’s closest circle of advisers is mostly made up of family members, and Úsuga David is the third of his brothers to fall in the last year. In August 2018, two other brothers who held top positions within the Urabeños were captured, Eusebio Úsuga David, alias “Chengo,” and Fernando Umbeiro Úsuga, alias “Palillo.” Nini Johana Úsuga, Cuarentano and Otoniel’s sister, has also been jailed since 2013.
In less than six years, Otoniel has seen at least 16 relatives captured, usually in joint police and military operations.
These unified efforts are the result of Operation Agamemnon, launched by police in February 2015 to dismantle the support structure around Otoniel. Its success was such that Agamemnon II began in June 2017, this time with extra backing from the army.
But while the operations have neutralized many key Urabeños leaders, Otoniel has remained at large.
Otoniel is wanted by Interpol, while Colombian officials have put a $1 million bounty on him. Reports of his whereabouts have surfaced over the years but intelligence sources say that he may now be hiding in the Paramillo Knot, a mountainous jungle region in Antioquia department.
Duque’s government has shown no signs of wanting to dialogue with Otoniel, as had been contemplated during the previous administration of Juan Manuel Santos. The strengthening of Operation Agamemnon II and the launch of a new task force, called Achilles, in Antioquia are clear signals of the confrontational strategy that Duque intends to follow.
Such measures are likely to reduce Otoniel’s room to maneuver. Still, the Urabeños remain among the largest criminal groups in Colombia with around 1,500 armed men, and are experienced in replacing leaders.
PROFILE: Dairo Antonio Úsuga (aka: Otoniel)
Dairo Antonio Úsuga, alias “Otoniel,” is the head of Colombia’s most powerful criminal group, the Urabeños, and the country’s most wanted man. But his grip on power is slipping as the security forces close in and his days among Colombia’s underworld elite may be numbered.
Otoniel began his underworld career as a member of the now-demobilized guerrilla group, the Popular Liberation Army (Ejército Popular de Liberación – EPL). Though he demobilized in 1991 at the age of 19 along with some 2,500 other EPL members, he returned to fighting soon after when he and his brother Juan de Dios Úsuga, alias “Giovanni,” signed up with the paramilitary Córdoba and Urabá Peasant Defense Forces (Autodefensas Campesinas de Córdoba y Urabá – ACCU).
The ACCU was later incorporated into the United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia – AUC), and Otoniel was sent to join the ranks of the AUC’s Centauros Bloc. There, he worked under the bloc’s finance chief, Daniel Rendón Herrera, alias “Don Mario,” laundering funds and handling extortion payments. In 2005, he again surrendered arms, this time under the AUC’s demobilization process. But once again his demobilization was short lived, and he soon reunited with Don Mario to help form the Urabeños.
After Don Mario’s capture by Colombian authorities in 2009, Otoniel and Giovanni assumed complete control of the Urabeños.
Under the brothers’ command, the Urabeños expanded across the country using a mix of violence and deal-making, setting them on the path to becoming the most powerful criminal group in Colombia.
In January 2012, the security forces killed Giovanni, leaving Otoniel as the maximum leader of the Urabeños. Since then he has headed a small command group dominated by his ex-comrades from the EPL and AUC.
Under Otoniel’s leadership, the Urabeños continued their expansion, either absorbing their rivals or wiping them out, and they soon became the only Colombian criminal organization remaining with a truly national reach.
In 2015, the security forces launched Operation Agamemnon, an offensive that sent top anti-drug officials and over 1,000 police and military officials to Urabá to target the Urabeños operations and hunt down Otoniel. Although he has so far remained elusive, the loss of key allies since phase two of Agamemnon began in 2017 has steadily increased the pressure on Otoniel. He has made entreaties to the government to negotiate his surrender and the Urabeños’ demobilization, even appearing in a public video appeal in September 2017.
Otoniel is the leader of one of Colombia’s largest criminal organizations, which controls strategic drug production and trafficking territories and provides services to independent drug traffickers. He also runs drug routes as a trafficker in his own right. Local Urabeños cells are also involved in a broad range of criminal activities, including extortion, illegal mining, microtrafficking and contraband, and many of these pay a percentage of their profits to the national leadership headed by Otoniel.
Otoniel is believed to be based in his home region and the Urabeños stronghold of Urabá, a region along Colombia’s northwestern coastline. He lives on the run, and reportedly uses guerrilla tactics to avoid capture, including traveling only by foot or mule and never sleeping in the same place on consecutive nights.
Allies and Enemies
Otoniel and his brother Giovanni expanded the Urabeños influence by violently confronting rivals such as the Rastrojos, while making allies of local criminal groups and drug traffickers across the country. In many cases these actors became part of the Urabeños “franchise.” In some regions, the group also struck drug trade agreements with the now-demobilized guerrillas of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia – FARC).
In the city of Medellín they made a pact with the city mafia, the Oficina de Envigado, with which they had previously fought for control of the city. They also contract out tasks such as microtrafficking, extortion, and assassinations to street gangs.
Amid underworld shake-ups in the wake of the demobilization of the FARC, Otoniel’s Urabeños have become embroiled in bitter turf wars with the smaller guerrilla group, the National Liberation Army (Ejército de Liberación Nacional – ELN), and groups of the ex-FARC mafia. In early 2018, they also became involved in violent confrontations with rebellious local factions of their own network.
Otoniel’s prospects look ever bleaker, and while he remains Colombia’s most-wanted man, he may already no longer be its most powerful criminal. Living on the run in Urabá, he is increasingly isolated, and his offer to surrender has almost certainly weakened his already slipping grip over the different Urabeños factions. Sources indicate that Otoniel no longer commands the complete loyalty of the other Urabeños leaders, who only obey his orders when it is in their interest, and it is likely only a matter of time before he is captured, killed or surrenders.
Comments are closed.